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GMOs can be filtered by selecting genetic elements that are added to the search criteria. When applying this filter option, only the selected elements will be shown.

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Genetic Element Add Synonyms Donor Trait Function Definition BCH Record ID
coding sequence Add to selection
>CS-1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase Add to selection
>CS-accD-PSECL Add to selection acc deaminase Pseudomonas chlororaphis Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Altered ripening or flowering promotes plant growth by sequestering and cleaving plant-produced ACC, a direct precurser of ethylene, and thereby lowering the level of ethylene in the plant. Among others, ethylene is involved in plant senescence, flowering, fruit ripening, and in the plant's respone to physical and environmental stresses. Expression in transgenic plants leads to decreased ethylene levels, thereby allowing to delay fruit ripening or protect plants from damage caused by pathogens or a wide variety of environmental stresses. Glick (2005) FEMS Microbiol. Letters 251:1-7 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (accD) gene. Glick (2005) FEMS Microbiol. Letters 251:1-7 15013
>CS-1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase Add to selection
>CS-acc-DIACA Add to selection acc synthase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine methylthioadenosine-lyase, acs2 Dianthus caryophyllus Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Altered ripening or flowering is a direct precurser of ethylene; is the rate-limiting reaction in ethylene biosynthesis. Among others, ethylene is involved in plant senescence, fruit ripening and flowering and in the plant's respone to physical and environmental stresses. Park et al. (1992) Mol Biol 18(2):377-386. The insertion of the carnation derived petal-specific acc gene leads to the co-suppression of the autologous carnation acc-synthase genes. This results in a decreased production of ACC synthase in the petals, leading to a reduced ethylene production in the petals and to a retardation of senescence. Notification C/NL/97/12 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene; petal-specific. Park et al. (1992) Mol Biol 18(2):377-386 15012
>CS-acc2-SOLLC Add to selection Le-acc2, S-adenosyl-L-methionine methylthioadenosine-lyase 2, acc synthase2, acs2 Solanum lycopersicum Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Altered ripening or flowering is a direct precurser of ethylene; the ACC synthase is the rate-limiting reaction in ethylene biosynthesis. Among others, ethylene is involved in plant senescence, fruit ripening and flowering and in the plant's respone to physical and environmental stresses. Rottmann et al. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 222 (4):937-961. The expression of a truncated version of the tomato acc2 in transgenic tomato plants leads to a downregulation of the endogenous acc synthase gene, leading to a reduced ethylene production and to a retardation of fruit ripening. Canadian Novel Food Information Document FD/OFB-095-306-A (1999) 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene. Rottmann et al. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 222 (4):937-961 15014
>CS-3"(9)-O-aminoglycoside adenyltransferase Add to selection
>CS-aadA-ECOLX Add to selection Streptomycin 3''-adenylyltransferase Escherichia coli Selection markers and reporter genes > Streptomycin/spectromycin resistance confers resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics spectinomycin and streptomycin; is typically used as a marker gene. This element is derived from the Tn7 transposon and contains its own bacterial regulatory elements. Fling et al. (1985) Nucleic Acid Res. 13(19):7095-7106. It is therefore not expressed in plants 3''(9)-O-aminoglycoside adenyltransferase (aadA). Fling et al. (1985) Nucleic Acid Res. 13(19):7095-7106 15033
>CS-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase Add to selection
>CS-HPPD-AVESA Add to selection Avena sativa
>CS-HPPD-PSEFL Add to selection CS-hppdPfW336 Pseudomonas fluorescens 104793
>CS-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase Add to selection
>CS-CP4epsps-RHIRD Add to selection aroA Agrobacterium tumefaciens ssp. CP4 Herbicide tolerance > Glyphosate tolerance The CP4 EPSPS protein is similar and functionally identical to endogenous plant EPSPS enzymes, but has a much reduced affinity for glyphosate relative to endogenous plant EPSPS. Padgette et al. (1996) J Nutr 126:728-40 5-enolpiruvilshikimate- 3-phosphate synthase gene. Steinruecken et al. (1980) Biochem Biophys Res Com. 94:1207-1212 14979
>CS-epsps-ARTGO Add to selection 3-phosphoshikimate 1-carboxyvinyltransferase, epsps ace5, epsps grg23, grg23ace5 Arthrobacter globiformis Herbicide tolerance > Glyphosate tolerance is a synthetic gene which is similar to the epsps grg23 gene from the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis. It codes for a modified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase derived from the native A. globiformis EPSPS protein which exhibits an inherent tolerance to glyphosate. Genective (2016) VCO-01981-5 maize Summary of Application EFSA GMO DE/2016/130; Schouten et al. (2010) US Patent No 7834249 B2 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene, modified. Schouten et al. (2010) US Patent No 7834249 B2 101942
>CS-epsps-MAIZE Add to selection TIPS EPSPS, 2mepsps, mepsps Zea mays Herbicide tolerance > Glyphosate tolerance modified sequence drived from Zea mays. Because of two point mutations leading to two amino acid exchanges (T102I and P106S) it is insensitive to glyphosate. Plants expressing this modified epsps gene are therefore tolerant to glyphosate-containing herbicides. Lebrun et al. (2003) US6566587 B1 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene, modified. Lebrun et al. (2003) US6566587 B1 46333
>CS-acetohydroxy acid synthase Add to selection
>CS-ahas-ARATH Add to selection AtALS, CSR1, TZP5, acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene, csr-1 Arabidopsis thaliana Herbicide tolerance > ALS/AHAS inhibitor tolerance catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine. Four mutants (A122V, W574S, W574L or S653N) of the ahas gene from Arabidopsis thaliana were shown to confer resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides such as imidazolinone and sulfonylurea. Chang and Duggleby (1998). Biochem J, 333, 765-777 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene (mutated) from Arabidopsis thaliana. Chang and Duggleby (1998). Biochem J, 333, 765-777 48073
>CS-ahas-MAIZE Add to selection acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene, zm-hra Zea mays Herbicide tolerance > ALS/AHAS inhibitor tolerance > Sulfonylurea tolerance catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine. Native AHAS is normally inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides. Mutated versions of the AHAS gene from Zea mays confer tolerance to AHAS inhibiting herbicides such as sulfonylurea. Duggleby and Pang (2000). J Biochem Mol Biol, 33, 1-36 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene (mutated). Lawrence et al. (1992). Plant Mol Biol 18, 1185-1187 48364
>CS-ahas-ORYSA Add to selection Acetolactate synthase (ALS) gene Oryza sativa Herbicide tolerance > ALS/AHAS inhibitor tolerance > Sulfonylurea tolerance mediates the first step in the biosynthesis pathway of branched-chain amino acids. McCourt and Duggleby (2006) Amino Acids 31(2):173-210 acetohydroxy acid synthase from rice. McCourt and Duggleby (2006) Amino Acids 31(2):173-210 104877
>CS-ahas-SOYBN Add to selection ALS, CS-Gm-hra, CS-gm-hra, Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase Glycine max Herbicide tolerance > ALS/AHAS inhibitor tolerance > Sulfonylurea tolerance catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine. Native AHAS is normally inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides. However, site directed mutagenesis introduced two mutataions (P183A and W560L) that lead to an insensitive version of the enzyme ahas from Glycine max. Its expression confers resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides such as sulfonylurea herbicides. Tan et al. (2005). Pest manag Sci, 61, 246-257 Herbicide-resistant acetohydroxy acid synthase gene (mutated). Sebastian et al. (1989). Crop Sci, 29, 1403-1408; Sebastian (1992). US5084082A; Tan et al. (2005). Pest manag Sci, 61, 246-257 100268
>CS-SuRB-TOBAC Add to selection ALS, CS-SuRB, acetolactate synthase, ahas-TOBAC Nicotiana tabacum Herbicide tolerance > ALS/AHAS inhibitor tolerance > Sulfonylurea tolerance catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine. Native AHAS is normally inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides. However a naturally occurring mutation causes the production of an altered form of AHAS (designated SuRB). Its expression confers resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides such as sulfonylurea herbicides. Mazur et al. (1987). Plant Physiol, 85, 1110-1117 Acetohydroxy acid synthase gene (SuRB). Mazur et al. (1987). Plant Physiol 85, 1110-1117 15177
>CS-SuRB_S4-TOBAC Add to selection ALS, CS-S4-HrA, CS-SuRB S4, acetolactate synthase, ahas-TOBAC Nicotiana tabacum Herbicide tolerance > ALS/AHAS inhibitor tolerance > Sulfonylurea tolerance catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine. Native AHAS is normally inhibited by sulfonylurea herbicides. However, the S4 ALS is a chimeric gene derived from two different tobacco AHAS genes. The S4 ALS contains two resistance mutations . Its expression confers resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides such as sulfonylurea herbicides. Lee et al. (1988). The EMBL Journal, 7, 1241-1248 S4 Acetohydroxy acid synthase (SuRB-S4). Lee et al. (1988). The EMBL Journal, 7, 1241-1248 15164
>CS-alpha amylase Add to selection
>CS-amy-MAIZE Add to selection 1,4-D-Glucan glucanohydrolase, maize alpha amylase, zm-aa1 Zea mays Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Male sterility hydrolyses starch (Young et al. (1994) Plant Physiol. 105(2):759-760); expression leads to the depletion of starch reserves that renders the pollen infertile. USDA, APHIS (2011) Environmental Assessment DP-32138-1 Alpha-amylase gene (aa1). Young et al. (1994) Plant Physiol. 105(2):759-760 105057
>CS-amy797E-SYNTH Add to selection amy797E alpha amylase, amy797E α amylase Synthetic Composition alteration > Enhanced bioethanol production codes for a thermotolerant alpha-amylase. It is composed of gene segments derived from three parental alpha-amylase genes originating from strains of the archeal order Thermococcales; enhances bioethanol production by increasing the thermostability of amylase used in degrading starch. EFSA Journal (2013). 11(6), 3252; Richardson et al. (2002). J Biol Chem, 277(29), 26501-26507 Chimeric alpha-amylase gene amy797E derived from Thermococcales spp. Richardson et al. (2002). J Biol Chem, 277(29), 26501-26507 14966
>CS-aryloxy alkanoate dioxygenase Add to selection
>CS-aad1-SPHHE Add to selection RdpA, aad-1 Sphingobium herbicidovorans Herbicide tolerance > 2,4-D tolerance can degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); can also cleave members of the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) class of potent grass-selective herbicides, thereby providing resistance to two distinct classes of herbicides. Wright et al. (2010) PNAS 107(47):20240-20245 Aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase 1 gene (aad1). Wright et al. (2010) PNAS 107(47):20240-20245 104812
>CS-aad12-DELAC Add to selection SdpA, aad-12 Delftia acidovorans Herbicide tolerance > 2,4-D tolerance can degrade 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); also acts on a wider repertoire of synthetic auxins, thereby providing resistance to a broader variety of synthetic-auxin herbicides. Wright et al. (2010) PNAS 107(47):20240-20245 Aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase 12 gene (aad12). Wright et al. (2010) PNAS 107(47):20240-20245 104805
>CS-B-box32 Add to selection
>CS-BBX32-ARATH Add to selection AtBBX32, B-box domain protein 32, EIP6, EMF1-Interacting Protein 6 Arabidopsis thaliana Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Enhanced growth rate or yield interacts with endogenous transcription factors to regulate the plant's diurnal processes and light signaling. Expression in plants results in an increased growth rate. Holtan et al. (2011). Plant Phys, 156, 2109-2123 B-box domain protein 32 gene. Khanna et al. (2009). Plant Cell, 21, 3416-3420; Putterill et al. (1995). Cell, 80, 847-857 105599
>CS-barnase Add to selection
>CS-barnase-BACAM Add to selection Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Male sterility codes for a ribonuclease enzyme (RNAse); when expressed in plants (without its inhibitor Barstar) interferes with RNA production in tapetum cells, thus disrupting their normal cell functioning and preventing the development of pollen which leads to male sterility. Mariani et al. (1992) Nature 357:384-387 Ribonuclease gene barnase. Mariani et al. (1992) Nature 357:384-387 14973
>CS-barstar Add to selection
>CS-barstar-BACAM Add to selection Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Fertility restoration specifically inhibits barnase RNAse by forming a stable one-to-one complex; when pollen from the restorer line (expressing barstar) is crossed to the male sterile line (expressing Barnase), the resultant progeny express the RNAse inhibitor in the tapetum cells of the anthers allowing hybrid plants to develop normal anthers and restore fertility. Mariani et al. (1992) Nature 357:384-387 Ribonuclease inhibitor gene barstar. Mariani et al. (1992) Nature 357:384-387 14974
>CS-beta glucuronidase Add to selection
>CS-uidA-ECOLX Add to selection Beta-D-glucuronoside glucuronosohydrolase, CS-GUS, beta glucuronidase, gurA, gusA Escherichia coli Selection markers and reporter genes > b-glucuronidase (GUS) activity codes for a beta-glucuronidase (GUS); is typically used as a reporter gene or visual marker gene. Jefferson et al. (1987) The EMBO Journal 6(13):3901-3907 uidA (gus) gene. Jefferson et al. (1987) The EMBO Journal 6(13):3901-3907 46004
>CS-bleomycin binding protein Add to selection
>CS-ble-ECOLX Add to selection Escherichia coli confers resistance to bleomycin bleomycin binding protein gene from Tn5 transposon
>CS-bromoxynil-specific nitrilase Add to selection
>CS-bxn-KLEPO Add to selection Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. Ozaenae Herbicide tolerance > Bromoxynil tolerance converts the herbicide bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4 hydroxybenzo-nitrile) to a degraded non-herbicidal product; expression in transgenic plants leads to an increased tolerance to bromoxynil herbicides. Stalker et al. (1988) J Biol Chem 263(13):6310-6314 bromoxynil-specific nitrilase (bxn) gene. Stalker et al. (1988) J Biol Chem 263(13):6310-6314 14976
>CS-carotene desaturase Add to selection
>CS-crtI-PANAN Add to selection Pantoea ananatis catalyses the conversion of 15-cis-phytoene to all-trans-lycopene. Ruiz-Sola and Rodriguez-Concepcion (2012). The Arabidopsis Book 10, e0158 carotene desaturase I. Misawa et al. (1990). JB 172(12), 6704-6712
>CS-cold shock protein Add to selection
>CS-cspB-BACIU Add to selection CSP, CspB-L2V, cold shock protein B Bacillus subtilis Abiotic stress tolerance > Drought or water tolerance promotes stress tolerance for or a number of abiotic stresses, including cold, heat, and water deficits in multiple plant species and improved grain yield in maize under water-limited conditions. Castiglioni et al. (2008) Plant Phys 147(2):446-455 cold shock protein B gene. Castiglioni et al. (2008) Plant Phys 147(2):446-455 103065
>CS-crystal delta-endotoxin Add to selection
>CS-cry1A.88-BACTU Add to selection Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki
>CS-cry1Ab-BACTU Add to selection cry1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis Pest resistance > Insect resistance > Lepidoptera resistance The trypsin resistant core of the encoded protein is insecticidal to lepidopteran larvae. It acts by selectively binding to specific sites localized on the lining of the midgut of susceptible insect species. 14985
>CS-cry1Ab_Ac-SYNTH Add to selection cry1Ab(c), cry1Ab/Ac, cry1Ab/c Synthetic 103109
>CS-cry1Ac-BACTU Add to selection cry1Ac Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki Pest resistance > Insect resistance > Lepidoptera resistance The trypsin resistant core of the encoded protein is insecticidal to lepidopteran larvae. It acts by selectively binding to specific sites localized on the lining of the midgut of susceptible insect species. 14986
>CS-cry1A_105-SYNTH Add to selection cry1A.105 Synthetic 43771
>CS-cry1C-BACTU Add to selection Bacillus thuringiensis
>CS-cry1F-BACTU Add to selection cry1F Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Aizawai 14987
>CS-cry2A.127-BACTU Add to selection Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki
>CS-cry2Ab2-BACTU Add to selection Cry2A(b), CryB2, CryIIAb, CryIIB, cry2Ab2 Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kurstaki 14988
>CS-cry2Ae-BACTU Add to selection cry2Ae Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Dakota 101895
>CS-cry34Ab1-BACTU Add to selection cry34Ab1 Bacillus thuringiensis 14994
>CS-cry35Ab1-BACTU Add to selection cry35Ab1 Bacillus thuringiensis 14995
>CS-cry3A-BACTU Add to selection cry3A Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Tenebrionis 14989
>CS-cry3Bb1-BACTU Add to selection cry3Bb1 Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Kumamotoensis 14993
>CS-cry51Aa2-BACTU Add to selection Bacillus thuringiensis Pest resistance > Insect resistance confers resistance to insects (hemipteran and thysanopteran) modified cry51Aa2 gene (amino-acid differences relative to Cry51Aa2: F46S, Y54H, S95A, F147S, Q149E, S167R, P219R, R273W, HYS deletion in residue range 196-201); Gowda et al. (2016), Nat Commun 7:12213
>CS-cry9C-BACTU Add to selection cry9C Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. Tolworthi 14996
>CS-ecry3_1Ab-SYNTH Add to selection eCry3.1Ab Synthetic 104789
>CS-mcry3A-SYNTH Add to selection mCry3A Synthetic 43634
>CS-cytochrome Add to selection
>CS-cytb5-PETHY Add to selection difF Petunia hybrida Composition alteration codes for a cytochrome b5 which acts as an electron donor for the Flavinoid 3' 5' hydroxylase enzyme cytochrome P450 (Cyt P450) and is required for full activity of the Cyt P450 enzyme in vivo and the generation of purple/ blue flower colours. De Vetten et al. (1999) PNAS 96(2):778-83 cytochrome b5 gene. De Vetten et al. (1999) PNAS 96(2):778-83 104593
>CS-defensin Add to selection
>CS-pdf1.2-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana Pest resistance > Fungus and Oomycetes resistance exhibits antimicrobial activities, particularly against filamentous fungi and therefore contributes to the plants' defence against microbial phytopahtogens. Penninckx (1996). Plant Cell, 8, 2309-2323 Defensin gene pdf1.2. Penninckx et al. (1996). Plant Cell, 8, 2309-2323 108261
>CS-delta desaturase Add to selection
>CS-delta12D-LACKL Add to selection delta-12 desaturase, delta-12 fatty acid desaturase Lachancea kluyveri Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses the conversion between various types of fatty acids by introduction of a double bond at delta12 position. Petrie et al. (2012). PLOS ONE, 7 (11), e49165; Watanabe et al. (2004). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 68, 721-727 delta12 desaturase gene
>CS-delta12D-PHYSP Add to selection D12D(Ps), delta-12 desaturase Phytophthora sojae Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyzes the conversion of oleic acid to linoleic acid delta12 desaturase gene; Cirpus, P. and Bauer, J. (2006). Patent WO2006100241 A2, WIPO
>CS-delta4D-DIALT Add to selection D4D(Pl), delta-4 desaturase, delta-4 fatty acid desaturase Diacronema lutheri Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses the conversion between various types of fatty acids delta4 desaturase gene from Diacronema Lutheri (also known as Pavlova lutheri); Tonon, T. et al. (2003). FEBS Letters 553, 440-444
>CS-delta4D-REBSA Add to selection delta-4 desaturase, delta-4 fatty acid desaturase Pavlova salina Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses the conversion between various types of fatty acids by introduction of a double bond at delta4 position. Zhou et al. (2007). Phytochemistry, 68, 785-796 delta4 desaturase gene from Pavlova salina (also known as Rebecca salina)
>CS-delta4D-THRSP Add to selection D4D(Tc), delta-4 desaturase, delta-4 fatty acid desaturase Thraustochytrium sp. Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses the conversion between various types of fatty acids delta4 desaturase gene; Qiu, X. et al. (2001). Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 31561-31566
>CS-delta5D-REBSA Add to selection delta-5 desaturase, delta-5 fatty acid desaturase Pavlova salina Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses the conversion between various types of fatty acids by introduction of a double bond at delta5 position. Zhou et al. (2007). Phytochemistry 68, 785-796 delta5 desaturase gene from Pavlova salina (also known as Rebecca salina)
>CS-delta5D-THRSP Add to selection D5D(Tc), delta-5 desaturase, delta-5 fatty acid desaturase Thraustochytrium sp. Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses the conversion between various types of fatty acids delta5 desaturase gene; Qiu, X. et al. (2001). Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 31561-31566
>CS-delta6D-MICPC Add to selection D6D, delta-6 desaturase, delta-6 fatty acid desaturase Micromonas pusilla Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses the conversion between various types of fatty acids by introduction of a double bond at delta6 position. Petrie et al. (2010). Metabolic Engineering, 12, 233-240 delta6 desaturase gene
>CS-delta6D-OSTTA Add to selection D6D(Ot), delta-6 desaturase, delta-6 fatty acid desaturase Ostreococcus tauri Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses the conversion between various types of fatty acids delta6 desaturase gene; Domergue, F. (2005). Biochemical Journal 389, 483-490
>CS-delta6D-PRIJU Add to selection Pj.D6D, delta-6 desaturase, delta-6 fatty acid dehydrogenase Primula juliae Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils desaturates certain endogenous fatty acids; by co-expression with CS-fad3-NEUCS (delta 15 desaturase gene) the seeds contain an increased amount of the omega-3 fatty acid stearidonic acid and a lower level of linoleic acid in the seeds. EFSA (2014) Scientific Opinion on MON87769. EFSA Journal 12(5):3644 delta 6 desaturase gene. EFSA (2014) Scientific Opinion on MON87769. EFSA Journal 12(5):3644 104623
>CS-fad3-NEUCS Add to selection Nc.Fad3, delta-15 desaturase, delta-15 fatty acid dehydrogenase Neurospora crassa Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils desaturates certain endogenous fatty acids; expression in transgenic soybean results in the conversion of linoleic acid to alpha-linolenic acid in the seeds. EFSA (2014) Scientific Opinion on MON87769. EFSA Journal 12(5):3644 delta 15 desaturase gene (fad3). EFSA (2014) Scientific Opinion on MON87769. EFSA Journal 12(5):3644 104625
>CS-delta elongase Add to selection
>CS-delta5E-OSTTA Add to selection D5E(Ot), delta-5 elongase Ostreococcus tauri Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses carbon chain extension of a fatty acid delta5 elongase gene; Zank, T. et al. (2005). Patent WO2005012316 A2, WIPO
>CS-delta5E-PYRCR Add to selection delta-5 elongase Pyramimonas cordata Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses carbon chain extension of a fatty acid. Petrie et al. (2010). Marine Biotechnology 12, 430-438 delta5 elongase gene
>CS-delta6E-PYRCR Add to selection delta-6 elongase Pyramimonas cordata Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses carbon chain extension of a fatty acid. Petrie et al. (2010). Marine Biotechnology 12, 430-438 delta6 elongase gene
>CS-delta6E-THAPS Add to selection D6E(Tp), delta-6 elongase Thalassiosira pseudonana Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses carbon chain extension of a fatty acid delta6 elongase gene; Ambrust, E.V. et al. (2004). Science 306, 79-86
>CS-detla6E-PHYPA Add to selection D6E(Pp), delta-6 elongase Physcomitrella patens Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses carbon chain extension of a fatty acid delta6 elongase gene; Zank, T.K. et al (2002). Plant Journal 31, 255-268
>CS-diacylglycerol acyltransferase Add to selection
>CS-dgat2A-UMBRA Add to selection O-acyltransferase, Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, CS-MrDGAT2A.nno Umbelopsis ramanniana Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils is responsible for transferring an acyl group from acyl-CoA to 1,2-diacylglycerol to form the storage lipid triacylglycerol. In transgenic soybean its expression leads to an increased oil content in the seeds. Lardizabel et al. (2008). Plant Phys, 148, 89-96 Diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene. Lardizabal et al. (2001). J Biol Chem 276, 38862-38869
>CS-dicamba monooxygenase Add to selection
>CS-dmo-STEMA Add to selection dicamba O-demethylase, dicamba mono-oxygenase Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Herbicide tolerance > Dicamba (2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid) tolerance catalyses the degradation of the broadleaf herbicide dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) to non-toxic 3,6-dichlorosalicylic acid in plants, thus conferring herbicide tolerance. Wang et al. (2016). Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 81, 171-182 dicamba monooxygenase gene. Wang et al. (1997). Appl Environ Microbiol, 63, 1623-1626 100728
>CS-dihydrodipicolinate synthase Add to selection
>CS-dhdps-CORGT Add to selection L-2,3-dihydrodipicolinate synthetase, 4-hydroxy-tetrahydrodipicolinate synthase, cordapA, dapA Corynebacterium glutamicum Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered amino acid composition codes for a lysine-insensitive dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) enzyme. DHDPS catalyzes the first enzymatic step in the lysine biosynthetic pathway and is feedback inhibited by L-lysine. Since this C. glutamicum DHDPS is insensitive to lysine inhibition, its expression in plants increases lysine production. Shaul and Galili (1992). The Plant Journal, 2, 203-209 Dihydrodipicolinate synthase gene; Bonnassie et al. (1990). Nucleic Acids Res 18, 6421 14978
>CS-dihydroflavonol 4-reductase Add to selection
>CS-dfr-MAIZE Add to selection <new synonym>, A1, Cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase, Dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, Dihydroquercetin reductase, Flavanone 4-reductase, NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase Zea mays Composition alteration > Colour modification involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway which is part of anthocyan pigment biosynthesis; catalyses the reduction of dihydroflavonols to unstable pro-anthocyanidins; the maize DFR, in particular, is able to convert dihydrokaempferol and dihydroquercetin into leuco-anthocyanidins. Expression in petunia leads to orange flower colour. Meyer et al. (1987). Nature, 330, 677-678; Bashandy and Teeri (2017). Planta, 246, 277-280 Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (A1) gene. Schwarz-Sommer et al. (1987). EMBO J, 6, 287-294 111603
>CS-dfr-PETHY Add to selection Dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase Petunia hybrida Composition alteration > Colour modification catalyzes the production of the blue-coloured anthocyanin pigment delphinidin and its derivatives. Leads to blue to purple flower coloration if co-expressed with a f3'5'h gene in transgenic carnation. EFSA (2006). The EFSA Journal, 362, 1-19 Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase gene. Beld et al. (1989). Plant Mol Biol, 13, 491-502 15009
>CS-DNA adenine methylase Add to selection
>CS-dam-ECOLX Add to selection DNA adenine methyltransferase Escherichia coli Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Male sterility disrupts normal cell function including the ability to produce anthers and pollen if expressed in the anther cells of maize. Plants containing dam are utilized as the female parent for hybrid seed production as they are unable to produce pollen. FDA (1998). Biotechnology Consultation Note to the File BNF No. 000036 DNA adenine methylase gene. Andrew and Albertsen (2002). Patent US 6399856 B1 15008
>CS-DsRed2 fluorescent protein Add to selection
>CS-DsRed2-SYNTH Add to selection Ds Red (Alt1) Synthetic Selection markers and reporter genes > DsRed2 activity leads to a pinkish coloratoin of the aleurone layer of maize seeds, used as a visual marker for the automated separation of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. USDA-APHIS (2011). Environmental Assessment DP-32138-1 Variant with one alteration (Alt1) of Clontech's DsRed protein, isolated from a marine coral, Discosoma sp., with unchanged amino acid sequence 101476
>CS-flavonoid 3', 5' hydroxylase Add to selection
>CS-F3_5_H-PETHY Add to selection F3'5H Petunia hybrida Composition alteration > Colour modification involved in the biosynthesis of the blue-coloured anthocyanin pigment delphinidin and its derivatives; leads to blue/purple flower colour of transgenic plants. Tanaka et al. (2009). Int J Mol Sci, 10, 5350-5369 Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene; is cytochrome P450 type mono-oxygenase. Bruglia et al. (2004). Patent WO2004020637A9 15010
>CS-F3_5_H-SALSN Add to selection F3'5H Salvia splendens Composition alteration > Colour modification involved in the biosynthesis of the blue-coloured anthocyanin pigment delphinidin and its derivatives; leads to blue/purple flower colour of transgenic plants. Tanaka et al. (2009). Int J Mol Sci, 10, 5350-5369 Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene; is cytochrome P450 type mono-oxygenase. Bruglia et al. (2004). Patent WO2004020637A9 104303
>CS-F3_5_H-VIOLA Add to selection F3'5H Viola sp. Composition alteration > Colour modification involved in the biosynthesis of the blue-coloured anthocyanin pigment delphinidin and its derivatives; leads to blue/purple flower colour of transgenic plants. Tanaka et al. (2009). Int J Mol Sci, 10, 5350-5369 Flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) gene; is cytochrome P450 type mono-oxygenase. Bruglia et al. (2004). Patent WO2004020637A9 43793
>CS-glyphosate oxidoreductase Add to selection
>CS-gox-OCHAN Add to selection goxv247 Ochrobactrum anthropi Herbicide tolerance > Glyphosate tolerance confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicides by degrading glyphosate into two non-toxic compounds, aminomethylphosphonic acid and glyoxylate. Variant 247 (GOXvar247) of the original gox gene has an enhanced efficiency of glyphosate degradation. EFSA (2004). The EFSA Journal, 29,1-19 Glyphosate oxidoreductase gene. Berry et al. (1995). US Patent 5.463.175 14998
>CS-glyphosate-N-acteyltransferase Add to selection
>CS-gat-BACLI Add to selection gat4601, gat4621 Bacillus licheniformis Herbicide tolerance > Glyphosate tolerance detoxifies the herbicide glyphosate by N-acetylation, conferring increased glyphosate tolerance. The very similar variants gat4621 and gat4601 were developed using a DNA shuffling technique using the GAT coding sequences from 3 separate strains of B. licheniformis. Castel et al. (2004). Science, 304, 1151-1154 Glyphosate-N-Acteyltransferase gene. Castel et al. (2004). Science, 304, 1151-1154 48363
>CS-growth hormone Add to selection
>CS-GHc2-ONCTS Add to selection Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Enhanced growth rate or yield alters metabolic activity leading to increased growth, additional body mass, a longer, leaner morphology, and improved feeding efficiency (i.e., feed conversion ratio). Hew et al. (1989). Fish Physiol Biochem 7, 375-380; Yaskowiak (2006). Transgenic Res 15, 465-480 Growth hormone gene from Chinook salmon. Hew et al. (1989). Fish Physiol Biochem, 7, 375-380 104723
>CS-homeodomain-leucine zipper Add to selection
>CS-HB17-ARATH Add to selection ATHB-17, ATHB17, Homeobox-leucine zipper protein 17 Arabidopsis thaliana 111521
>CS-HD4-HELAN Add to selection Hahb-4 Helianthus annuus Abiotic stress tolerance > Drought or water tolerance is regulated at the transcriptional level by water availability and abscisic acid and participates in the regulation of the expression of genes involved in developmental responses of plants to desiccation. Transgenic plants expressing HD4 are more tolerant to water stress conditions. Dezar CA et al (2005). Transgenic Res, 14, 429-440 Homeodomain-leucine zipper 4 gene; belongs to a plant-specific family of transcription factors. Dezar CA et al. (2005). Transgenic Res, 14, 429-440 112017
>CS-hygromycin B phosphotransferase Add to selection
>CS-hpt-ECOLX Add to selection aph4, aphIV Escherichia coli Selection markers and reporter genes > Hygromycin resistance specifically inactivates the antibiotic hygromycin B by phosphorylation and allows for the selection for hygromycin B resistance. Blochlinger et al. (1984). Mol Cell Biol, 4, 2929-2931 Hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. Blochlinger et al. (1984). Mol Cell Biol, 4, 2929-2931 14991
>CS-insulin precursor Add to selection
>CS-preINS-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic Production of medical, pharmaceutical or nutritional compounds > Amino acid, peptide or protein production suitable for diabetes treatment (oral administration). patent WO 2009133099 A2 synthetic single chain precursor molecule for the human insulin peptide. patent WO 2009133099 A2
>CS-leucine rich repeat Add to selection
>CS-rpi1-SOLBU Add to selection Rpi-blb1 Solanum bulbocastanum Pest resistance > Fungus and Oomycetes resistance > Phytophthora resistance codes for a protein of the NBS-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat) type; confers increased resistance to Phytophthora infestans Phytophthora infestans resistance gene 1. van der Vossen et al. (2003). Plant J, 36, 867-882 41317
>CS-rpi1-SOLVN Add to selection Rpi-vnt1.1, resistance to P. inflatum gene Solanum venturii Pest resistance > Fungus and Oomycetes resistance confers increased resistance to Phytophtora infestans caused late blight; activates a signaling cascade that leads to localized plant cell death, thereby restricting the growth and spread of the pathogen to the rest of the plant. Foster et al. (2009). MPMI, 22, 589-600 Phytophthora infestans resistance gene 1. Foster et al. (2009). MPMI, 22, 589-600 102155
>CS-rpi2-SOLBU Add to selection Rpi-blb2 Solanum bulbocastanum Pest resistance > Fungus and Oomycetes resistance > Phytophthora resistance codes for a protein of the NBS-LRR (nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat) type; confers increased resistance to Phytophthora infestans Phytophthora infestans resistance gene 2. van der Vossen et al. (2005). Plant J, 44, 208-222 41318
>CS-male fertility gene Ms45 Add to selection
>CS-ms45-MAIZE Add to selection Male fertility gene Zea mays Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Fertility restoration restores fertility to the male-sterile ms45 mutatnt maize by restoring the development of the microspore cell wall that gives rise to pollen. Cigan et al. (2001). Sex Plant Reprod, 14, 135-142 ms45 gene. Cigan et al. (2001). Sex Plant Reprod, 14, 135-142 105053
>CS-neomycin phosphotransferase II Add to selection
>CS-nptII-ECOLX Add to selection aminoglycoside-3-phosphotransferase II, aph(3')-II, aphII Escherichia coli Selection markers and reporter genes > Kanamycin/neomycin resistance confers resistance to neomycin/kanamycin antibiotics. Allows transformed plants to metabolize neomycin and kanamycin during selection. Ziemienowicz (2001). Acta Physiol Plant, 23, 363-374 Neomycin phosphotransferase II gene from the Eschrichia coli Tn5 transposon. Beck et al (1982). Gene, 19, 327-336 15001
>CS-nopaline synthase Add to selection
>CS-nos-RHIRD Add to selection D-nopaline dehydrogenase Agrobacterium tumefaciens Selection markers and reporter genes > Nopaline synthesis directs infected host cells to synthesize opines, such as nopaline. This trait is introduced during plant transformation to permit the identification of transformed plant embryos. Canadian Food Inspection Agency (1998). DD1998-24, Determination of the Safety of CDC Triffid Flax Nopaline synthase gene present on the T-DNA region of the Ti plasmid of wild-type Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bevan et al. (1983). Nuc Acis Res, 11(2), 369-385 15171
>CS-omega desaturase Add to selection
>CS-omega3D-KOMPG Add to selection omega-3 desaturase, omega-3 fatty acid desaturase Pichia pastoris Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses linoleic acid to synthesize alpha-linolenic acid by introduction of a double bond at the position of three carbons from the methyl end of n-6 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) to synthesize corresponding n-3 PUFAs. Zhang et al. (2008). Yeast, 25, 21-27 omega3 desaturase gene (Komagataella phaffii)
>CS-omega3D-PHYIT Add to selection O3D(Pi), omega-3 desaturase, omega-3 fatty acid desaturase Phytophthora infestans Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses linoleic acid to synthesize alpha-linolenic acid by introduction of a double bond at the position of three carbons from the methyl end of n-6 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) to synthesize corresponding n-3 PUFAs. Zhang et al. (2008). Yeast, 25, 21-27 omega3 desaturase gene; Wu, G. et al. (2005). Nature Biotechnology 23, 1013-1017
>CS-omega3D-PYTIR Add to selection O3D(Pir), omega-3 desaturase, omega-3 fatty acid desaturase Pythium irregulare Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils catalyses linoleic acid to synthesize alpha-linolenic acid by introduction of a double bond at the position of three carbons from the methyl end of n-6 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) to synthesize corresponding n-3 PUFAs. Zhang et al. (2008). Yeast, 25, 21-27 omega3 desaturase gene; Cheng, B. et al. (2010). Transgenic Research 19, 221-229
>CS-phosphinotricin N-acetyltransferase Add to selection
>CS-bar-STRHY Add to selection bialaphos resistance, pat Streptomyces hygroscopicus Herbicide tolerance > Glufosinate tolerance Acetylates the primary amino group of L-phosphinothricin (L-PPT; a.k.a. glufosinate) rendering it inactive. Wehrmann et al. (1996) Nat Biotechnol. 14:1274-78; ENV/JM/MONO(99) 13:1-26 Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene derived from the common soil bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus a.k.a. bar gene shares 85 per cent homology at the amino acid level with the pat gene. Thompson et al. (1987) EMBO J. 6:2519-2523 14972
>CS-pat-STRVR Add to selection bialaphos resistance Streptomyces viridochromogenes Herbicide tolerance > Glufosinate tolerance Acetylates the primary amino group of L-phosphinothricin (L-PPT; a.k.a. glufosinate) rendering it inactive. Wehrmann et al. (1996) Nat Biotechnol.14:1274-78; ENV/JM/MONO(99) 13:1-26 Phosphinothricin acetyltransferase gene derived from Streptomyces viridochromogenes a.k.a. pat gene; shares 85 per cent homology at the amino acid level with the bar gene. Wohlleben et al. (1988) Gene 70:25-37 15002
>CS-phosphomannose isomerase Add to selection
>CS-pmi-ECOLX Add to selection Mannose-6-phosphate isomerase, manA Escherichia coli Selection markers and reporter genes > Mannose metabolism catalyzes the reversible interconversion of mannose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate; allows growth on mannose as a carbon source. Reed et al (2001). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant, 37, 127-132 Phosphomannose isomerase. Reed et al (2001). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant, 37, 127-132 15003
>CS-phytase Add to selection
>CS-phyA-ASPNG Add to selection 3-phytase Aspergillus niger Composition alteration > Phytate degradation increases the breakdown of plant phytates which bind phosphorus and makes the latter available to monogastric animals; leads to a reduction in the phosphorus content of manure. Gontia et al.(2012). Food Technol Biotechnol, 50, 3-10 Phytase gene. Mullaney et al. (1991). Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 35, 611-614; van Hartingsveldt et al. (1993). Gene, 127, 87-94 15378
>CS-phytoene synthase Add to selection
>CS-psy-CITUN Add to selection CitPSY Citrus unshiu Composition alteration > Colour modification > Altered caroteinoid biosynthesis catalyses the conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to phytoene, an intermediate in lycopene and carotene biosynthesis Phytoene synthase gene
>CS-psy-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays
>CS-proteinase inhibitor II Add to selection
>CS-pinII-SOLTU Add to selection PI-2 Solanum tuberosum Pest resistance > Insect resistance > Lepidoptera resistance enhances defense against insect predators by reducing the digestibility and nutritional quality of the leaves. Beekwilder (2000). Eur J Biochem, 267, 975-1984 Proteinase inhibitor II gene. Beekwilder (2000). Eur J Biochem, 267, 975-1984 104338
>CS-replicase Add to selection
>CS-NIb-PRSV Add to selection Nl-b, Nuclear inclusion protein B, Rep, Replicase Papaya ringspot virus Pest resistance > Virus resistance > Papaya ringspot virus resistance confers resistance to papaya ringspot virus through gene silencing mechanism. Chen et al. (2001). Plant Cell Reports, 20, 272-277 Replicase domain of the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) Chen et al. (2001). Plant Cell Reports, 20, 272-277
>CS-rep-PLRV Add to selection ORF1/ORF2 , PLRVrep Potato leaf roll virus Pest resistance > Virus resistance > Potato leaf roll virus resistance confers resistance to PLRV through gene silencing mechanism if expressed in transgenic plants. Canada Food Inspection Agency (1999). DD2002-38: Determination of the safety of RBMT21-129 and RBMT21-350 Replicase gene of the Potato leafroll virus; comprised of the two overlapping ORF1 and ORF2 sequences of the PLRV genome which together encode a full length PLRV replicase. van der Wilk et al. (1989). FEBS Letters, 245, 51-56 104847
>CS-S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase Add to selection
>CS-SAMhydrolase-T3 Add to selection SAMase, S-adenosylmethionine cleaving enzyme, adenosylmethionine lyase, methylmethionine-sulfonium-salt hydrolase, sam-k Bacteriophage T3 Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Altered ripening or flowering > Reduced ethylene synthesis causes delayed ripening by reducing the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a substrate for ethylene production. The sam-k gene was modified to contain a 5' consensus eukaryotic translation initiation site, the Kozak sequence. USDA APHIS (1999) Federal Register 64(206):57625 Modified S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase gene. Hughes et al. (1986). Nuc Acid Res, 15, 7117-729 15017
>CS-seed albumin Add to selection
>CS-AmA1-AMAPH Add to selection Amaranthus hypochondriacus Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered amino acid composition Amaranth seed albumin is used to increase nutritional values of an organism Amaranth seed albumin (AmA1); Raina, A. & Datta, A. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 11774-11778
>CS-tetracycline-controlled transactivator Add to selection
>CS-tTAV-SYNTH Add to selection tetracycline transcriptional activator Synthetic Composition alteration > Reproductive alteration gives very high levels of expression of tTAV in the absence of tetracycline, this high expression is deleterious to cells as it represses normal transcriptional function; when introduced into certain insects, it causes death of the insect unless the antibiotic tetracycline is supplied. Gossen and Bujard (1992). PNAS, 89, 5547-5551; Gong et al. (2005). Nat Biotechnol, 23, 453-456; Oxitec (2016). Draft Environmental Assessment for Investigational Use of Aedes aegypti OX513A Tetracycline transcriptional activator variant, based on a fusion of sequences from Escherichia coli and Herpes simplex virus (VP16 transcriptional activator); synthetic. Gossen and Bujard (1992). PNAS, 89, 5547-5551 101475
>CS-thioesterase Add to selection
>CS-te-UMBCA Add to selection 12:0-ACP thioesterase, FatB1,, UcFatB1, acyl-ACP thioesterase Umbellularia californica Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered fatty acids and oils is active in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway of developing seeds; causes the accumulation of triacylglycerides containing esterified lauric acid and, to a lesser extent, myristic acid. Voelker et al. (1992). Science, 257, 72-74 12:0 ACP thioesterase. Voelker et al. (1992). Science, 257, 72-74 15005
>CS-triosephosphate isomerase Add to selection
>CS-tpi1-SCHPM Add to selection pot, tpi Schizosaccharomyces pombe Selection markers and reporter genes > Hexose sugars metabolism glycolytic enzyme involved in the breakdown of sugars; essential for growth on medium containing hexose sugars as sole carbon source Triosephosphate isomerase. Alber and Kawasaki (1982). J Mol Appl Genet, 1, 419-434
>CS-trypsin inhibitor Add to selection
>CS-SCK-SYNTH Add to selection modified CpTi, modified cowpea trypsin inhibitor Synthetic Pest resistance > Insect resistance codes for CpTI (cowpea trypsin inhibitor) with artificial modifications (a signal peptide and a KDEL sequence were added, respectively, on both ends of the gene); confers insect resistance. Su et al. (2011) Eur Food Res Technol 232:351-359; Xu et al. (1996) Mol Breeding 2:167-173 Modified trypsin inhibitor gene from Vigna unguiculata, synthetic. Su et al. (2011). Eur Food Res Technol, 232, 351-359; Xu et al. (1996). Mol Breeding, 2, 167-173
>CS-vegetative insecticidal proteins Add to selection
>CS-Vip3A-BACTU Add to selection Bacillus thuringiensis 14990
>CS-vip3Aa20-BACTU Add to selection Bacillus thuringiensis 100887
>CS-viral coat protein Add to selection
>CS-cp-CMV Add to selection Cucumber mosaic virus Pest resistance > Virus resistance > Cucumber mosaic virus resistance confers resistance to cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism. APHIS Petition for CZW-2 (1995); Quemada et al. (1991). Phytopathology, 81, 794-802 Coat protein gene from CMV. Quemada et al. (1991). Phytopathology, 81, 794-802 15027
>CS-cp-PPV Add to selection Plum pox virus Pest resistance > Virus resistance > Plum pox virus resistance confers resistance to plum pox virus (PPV) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism. Scorza et al. (1994). Plant Cell Reports, 14, 18-22 Coat protein gene from PPV. Ravelonandro et al. (1988). J gen Virol, 69, 1509-1516 104309
>CS-cp-PRSV Add to selection Papaya ringspot virus 15026
>CS-cp-PVY Add to selection Potato virus Y Pest resistance > Virus resistance > Potato virus Y resistance confers resistance to potato virus Y (PVY) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism. Lawson et al. (1990). Biotechnology, 8, 127-134 Coat protein gene from PVY. Lawson et al. (1990). Biotechnology, 8, 127-134 15020
>CS-cp-WMV Add to selection CS-cp-WMV2 Watermelon mosaic virus Pest resistance > Virus resistance > Watermelon mosaic virus resistance confers resistance to watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV2) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism. APHIS Petition for CZW-2 (1995); Quemada et al. (1990). Journal of General Virology, 71, 1451-1460 Coat protein gene from WMV2. Quemada et al. (1990). Journal of General Virology, 71, 1451-1460 15024
>CS-cp-ZYMV Add to selection Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Pest resistance > Virus resistance > Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance confers resistance to zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV) through "pathogen-derived resistance" mechanism. APHIS Petition for CZW-2 (1995); Quemada et al. (1990). Journal of General Virology, 71, 1451-1460 Coat protein gene from ZYMV. Quemada et al. (1990). Journal of General Virology, 71, 1451-1460 15025
>CS-WRKY transcription factor Add to selection
>CS-WRKY45-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa Pest resistance plays a crucial role in benzothiadiazole (BTH)-induced disease resistance. BTH is a plant activator which sets off a signalling cascade that protects plants from diseases by activating the salicylic acid signaling pathway. Shimono et al. (2012). Mol Plant Path, 13, 83-94 WRKY45 transcription factor from rice. Shimono et al. (2012) Mol. Plant Path. 13(1):83-94 103726
enhancer Add to selection
>E-34S FMV Add to selection
>E-FMV Add to selection E-35S FMV Figwort mosaic virus 105196
>E-35S CaMV Add to selection
>E-35S-CaMV Add to selection E-35S Cauliflower mosaic virus 105197
>E-nopaline synthase Add to selection
>E-nos-RHIRD Add to selection Agrobacterium tumefaciens
>E-rb7 matrix attachment region Add to selection
>E-as_rb7_mar-TOBAC Add to selection Nicotiana tabacum 104795
>E-rb7_mar-TOBAC Add to selection
>E-RuBisCO small subunit Add to selection
>E-rbcS-MAIZE Add to selection L-RuBisCO-SSU, L-SSU, SSU-5 UTR Zea mays
gene silencing Add to selection
>GS-1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase Add to selection
>GS-acs2_s-SOLLC Add to selection Solanum lycopersicum Composition alteration > Reduced acrylamide potential
>GS-acs_as-ANACO Add to selection Ananas comosus Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Altered ripening or flowering > Reduced ethylene synthesis Part of an RNAi expression system to down regulate endogenous ACC synthase 406 bp 3' sequence of meristem-specifc 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene, in the antisense orientation
>GS-acs_s-ANACO Add to selection Ananas comosus Alteration in growth, development or product quality > Altered ripening or flowering > Reduced ethylene synthesis Part of an RNAi expression system to down regulate endogenous ACC synthase 406 bp 3' sequence of meristem-specifc 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC)synthase gene, in the sense orientation.
>GS-acid invertase Add to selection
>GS-AI_as-SOLTU Add to selection Vinv, vacuol invertase Solanum tuberosum Composition alteration > Reduced acrylamide potential Part of an RNAi expression system to down regulate endogenous acid invertase. Fragment of the acid invertase (AI) in antisense orientation. Ye et al. (2010) JAFC 58:12162-12167
>GS-AI_s-SOLTU Add to selection VInv, vacuol invertase Solanum tuberosum Composition alteration > Reduced acrylamide potential Part of an RNAi expression system to down regulate endogenous acid invertase. Fragment of the acid invertase (AI) in sense orientation. Ye et al. (2010) JAFC 58:12162-12167
>GS-alpha-glucan water dikinase R1 Add to selection
>GS-R1_as-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum 106425
>GS-R1_s-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum 106425
>GS-asparagine synthetase-1 Add to selection
>GS-Asn1_as-SOLTU Add to selection CS-Asn1, Aspartate-ammonia ligase Solanum tuberosum 106421
>GS-Asn1_s-SOLTU Add to selection Aspartate-ammonia ligase Solanum tuberosum 106421
>GS-caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase Add to selection
>GS-CCOMT_u-MEDSA Add to selection
>GS-delta desaturase Add to selection
>GS-fad2_1_as-SOYBN Add to selection delta-12 fatty acid dehydrogenase, fad2-1 Glycine max 100267
>GS-fad2_1_s-SOYBN Add to selection delta-12 fatty acid dehydrogenase, fad2-1 Glycine max 100267
>GS-delta-cadinene synthase Add to selection
>GS-dcs_u-GOSHI Add to selection CAD1, dcn1, dcs1 Gossypium hirsutum Composition alteration > Reduced gossypol level Part of an RNAi expression system that induces post-transcriptional silencing of the dcs gene from Gossypium hirsutum Trigger sequence of the delta-cadinene synthase gene; Sunilkumar et al. 2006, PNAS 103, 18054-18059
>GS-dihydroflavonol 4-reductase Add to selection
>GS-dfr_as-DIACA Add to selection Dianthus caryophyllus
>GS-dfr_s-DIACA Add to selection Dianthus caryophyllus
>GS-granule-bound starch synthase Add to selection
>GS-gbss_as-SOLTU Add to selection antisense of granule-bound starch synthase Solanum tuberosum 48072
>GS-gbss_s-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum 48072
>GS-lycopene cyclase Add to selection
>GS-lycb_as-ANACO Add to selection Ananas comosus Composition alteration > Colour modification > Altered caroteinoid biosynthesis Part of an RNAi expression system to down regulate endogenous lycopene b-cyclase. 619 bp fragment of the lycopene beta-cyclase (lycb) gene in antisense orientation. The lycb gene encodes an enzyme that converts lycopene to gamma-carotene, a metabolic precursor of beta-carotene.
>GS-lycb_s-ANACO Add to selection Ananas comosus Composition alteration > Colour modification > Altered caroteinoid biosynthesis Part of an RNAi expression system to down regulate endogenous lycopene b-cyclase. 619 bp fragment of the lycopene beta-cyclase (lycb) gene in sense orientation. The lycb gene encodes an enzyme that converts lycopene to gamma-carotene, a metabolic precursor of beta-carotene.
>GS-lyce_as-ANACO Add to selection Ananas comosus Composition alteration > Colour modification > Altered caroteinoid biosynthesis Part of an RNAi expression system to down regulate endogenous lycopene e-cyclase. 504 bp fragment of the lycopene epsilon-cyclase gene (lyce) in antisense orientation. The lyce gene encodes an enzyme that converts lycopene to sigma-carotene, a metabolic precursor of alpha-carotene.
>GS-lyce_s-ANACO Add to selection Ananas comosus Composition alteration > Colour modification > Altered caroteinoid biosynthesis Part of an RNAi expression system to down regulate endogenous lycopene e-cyclase. 504 bp fragment of the lycopene epsilon-cyclase gene (lyce) in sense orientation. The lyce gene encodes an enzyme that converts lycopene to sigma-carotene, a metabolic precursor of alpha-carotene.
>GS-palmitoyl acyl carrier protein thioesterase Add to selection
>GS-fatB1_as-SOYBN Add to selection L-palmitoyl-ACP-thioesterase, L-FatB, L-PATE Glycine max 104682
>GS-fatB1_s-SOYBN Add to selection L-palmitoyl-ACP-thioesterase, L-FatB, L-PATE Glycine max 104682
>GS-phosphorylase-L Add to selection
>GS-phl_as-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum 106426
>GS-phl_s-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum 106426
>GS-polygalacturonase gene Add to selection
>GS-pg_as-SOLLC Add to selection Solanum lycopersicum 15015
>GS-pg_s-SOLLC Add to selection Solanum lycopersicum 15015
>GS-polyphenol oxidase 5 Add to selection
>GS-Ppo5_as-SOLVR Add to selection CS-Ppo5 Solanum verrucosum 106424
>GS-Ppo5_s-SOLVR Add to selection CS-Ppo5 Solanum verrucosum 106424
>GS-polyphenol oxidase suppression transgene Add to selection
>GS-PGAS-SYNTH Add to selection PPO Suppression Transgene Synthetic 106414
>GS-replicase Add to selection
>GS-rep-(ac1)_u-BGMV Add to selection Bean golden mosaic virus
>GS-RNA-dependent RNA polymerase Add to selection
>GS-RdRp_as-BNYVV Add to selection CS-RZM Beet necrotic yellow vein virus 101870
>GS-RdRp_s-BNYVV Add to selection CS-RZM Beet necrotic yellow vein virus 101870
>GS-Snf7 -escrt-III subunit protein Add to selection
>GS-Snf7_u-DIAVI Add to selection Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Partial coding sequence of the Snf7 gene designed to match that from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. Babst et al. (2007), Dev Cell 3:271-282
genomic sequence Add to selection
>G-endogenous genomic sequence Add to selection flanking sequence
>G-flank-HOST Add to selection flanking sequence
>G-genomic-HOST Add to selection
intron Add to selection
>I-actin Add to selection
>I-1_act1-ORYSA Add to selection I-ract1 Oryza sativa 100355
>I-1_act8-ARATH Add to selection I-act8 Arabidopsis thaliana 103909
>I-alcohol dehydrogenase Add to selection
>I-1_adh1-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays
>I-2_adh1-MAIZE Add to selection I-ADH1 intron 2 Zea mays 103867
>I-6_adh1-MAIZE Add to selection I-ADH1 intron 6 Zea mays 103625
>I-adh-DROSP Add to selection Drosophila spp.
>I-dihydroflavonol 4-reductase Add to selection
>I-dfr-PETHY Add to selection Petunia hybrida
>I-elongation factor 1 alpha Add to selection
>I-1_EF1alpha-ARATH Add to selection I-EF-1 alpha, I-tsf1 Arabidopsis thaliana 103905
>I-heat shock protein Add to selection
>I-hsp70-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 100359
>I-histone Add to selection
>I-1_H3-ARATH Add to selection I-H3At Arabidopsis thaliana 104648
>I-intron-containing 5'UTR Add to selection
>I-AGO4 Add to selection 5'UTR, intron-containing untranslated region Arabidopsis thaliana Intron-containing 5' UTR of gene AGO4; Zilberman, D. et al. (2003). Science 299, 716-719
>I-At1g01170 Add to selection 5'UTR, intron-containing untranslated region Arabidopsis thaliana Intron-containing 5' UTR of locus At1g01170; Nakabayashi, K. et al. (2005). Plant Journal 41, 697-709
>I-At1g62290 Add to selection 5'UTR, intron-containing untranslated region Arabidopsis thaliana Intron-containing 5' UTR of locus At1g62290 (aspartyl protease family protein); Chen, X. et al. (2002). Eur J Biochem 269, 4675-4684
>I-At1g65090 Add to selection 5'UTR, intron-containing untranslated region Arabidopsis thaliana Intron-containing 5' UTR of locus At1g65090; Braybrook, S.A. et al. (2006). PNAS 103, 3468-3473
>I-At5g63190 Add to selection 5'UTR, intron-containing untranslated region Arabidopsis thaliana Intron-containing 5' UTR of locus At5g63190; Wang, Y. et al. (2008). Plant Physiology 148, 1201-1211
>I-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase Add to selection
>I-9_PEPC-MAIZE Add to selection iPEPC9 Zea mays 101406
>I-psbr Add to selection
>I-2_psbr-SOLTU Add to selection LS1 Solanum tuberosum Intron 2 of the psbr gene (also known as light-inducible tissue-specific LS1 gene); length: 193bp.
>I-pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase Add to selection
>I-pdk-FLATR Add to selection Flaveria trinervia
>I-RuBisCO small subunit Add to selection
>I-1_rbcS-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 100360
>I-ubiquitin Add to selection
>I-1_ubi1-MAIZE Add to selection I-Ubi1Zm 1, I-ZmUbi1 Zea mays 103627
>I-ubi-ANDGE Add to selection
>I-ubi4-PETCR Add to selection Ubi4(Pc) Petroselinum crispum Intron of ubiquitin; Kawalleck, P. et al. (1993). Plant Molecular Biology 21, 673-684
>I-ubi4-SACOF Add to selection Saccharum officinarum
leader Add to selection
>L-5'e1 tapetum specific Add to selection
>L-5_e1-ORYSA Add to selection L-5'e1, L-GE1 Oryza sativa 104947
>L-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase Add to selection
>L-epsps-ARATH Add to selection L-ShkG Arabidopsis thaliana 103857
>L-actin Add to selection
>L-act8-ARATH Add to selection L-actin 8 Arabidopsis thaliana 103908
>L-alcohol dehydrogenase Add to selection
>L-adh-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa functions as a translational enhancer and contributes to efficient translation in dicotyledonous and in monocotyledonous plant cells. Sugio et al. (2008) J Biosci Bioeng. 105(3):300-302 5'UTR of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Sugio et al. (2008) J Biosci Bioeng. 105(3):300-302 104870
>L-alpha subunit of beta conglycinin Add to selection
>L-7Salpha-SOYBN Add to selection L-7Salpha, L-alpha'-bcsp, L-beta-conglycinin storage protein Glycine max
>L-beta glucuronidase Add to selection
>L-uidA-ECOLX Add to selection Escherichia coli
>L-cestrum yellow leaf curling virus Add to selection
>L-CYLCV Add to selection Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus
>L-chlorophyll a/b-binding protein Add to selection
>L-cab-PETHY Add to selection L-Cab22 Petunia hybrida 101901
>L-cab-WHEAT Add to selection Triticum aestivum 100354
>L-elongation factor 1 alpha Add to selection
>L-EF1alpha-ARATH Add to selection L -tsf1, L-EF-1 alpha Arabidopsis thaliana 103904
>L-heat shock protein Add to selection
>L-hsp17_9-SOYBN Add to selection L-hsp17.9 Glycine max 103922
>L-hsp70-PETHY Add to selection Petunia hybrida 103901
>L-octopine synthase Add to selection
>L-ocs-RHIRD Add to selection L-OCS Tobacco mosaic virus 104673
>L-omega tobacco mosaic virus Add to selection
>L-omega-TMV Add to selection L-O5'-UTR, L-omega Tobacco mosaic virus 104820
>L-Papaya ringspot virus Add to selection
>L-PRSV Add to selection Papaya ringspot virus
>L-peptide Add to selection
>L-pep-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic
>L-RNA 4 of alfalfa mosaic virus Add to selection
>L-RNA4-AMV Add to selection L-AMVRNA4 Alfalfa mosaic virus 103886
>L-RuBisCO small subunit Add to selection
>L-rbcS-MAIZE Add to selection L-RuBisCO-SSU , L-SSU, SSU-5'UTR Zea mays 103768
>L-tobacco etch virus Add to selection
>L-TEV Add to selection L-5'-TEV, L-TEV 5', L-TEV5' Tobacco etch virus 104664
>L-ubiquitin Add to selection
>L-ubi-ANDGE Add to selection Andropogon gerardii
>L-ubi-MAIZE Add to selection L-ZmUbi, L-ZmUbi1, L-ubi1Zm, L-ubiZm Zea mays 103927
>L-ubi4-SACOF Add to selection Saccharum officinarum
promoter Add to selection
>P-34S FMV Add to selection
>P-FMV Add to selection P-35S FMV, P-CMoVb Figwort mosaic virus Promoter (directs transcription) 34S promoter derived from Figwort mosaic virus (FMV). Shepard et al. (1987) Phytopathology 77:1668-1673; Richins et al. (1987) Nucl Acids Res. 15:8451-8466; Gowda et al. (1989) J Cell Biochem. 13D (supplement):301 101507
>P-35S CaMV Add to selection
>P-2ocs_35S-SYNTH Add to selection
>P-35S-CaMV Add to selection P-35S, P-CaMV 35S Cauliflower mosaic virus 100287
>P-35S-CaMV_v4 Add to selection
>P-35S-CaMV_v6 Add to selection
>P-4AS1-CaMV Add to selection CaMV 35S promoter plus four repeats of activating sequence, P-4AS1 Cauliflower mosaic virus 101504
>P-e35S-CaMV Add to selection Cauliflower mosaic virus 100366
>P-5'e1 stamen specific Add to selection
>P-5_e1-ORYSA Add to selection P-5'e1, P-GE1 Oryza sativa 101026
>P-5126 anther-specific Add to selection
>P-5126-MAIZE Add to selection P-5126del Zea mays 103911
>P-acetohydroxy acid synthase Add to selection
>P-ahas-ARATH Add to selection acetolactate synthase (ALS) promoter Arabidopsis thaliana 103932
>P-ahas-MAIZE Add to selection acetolactate synthase (ALS) promoter Zea mays 103926
>P-ahas-ORYSA Add to selection Acetolactate synthase (ALS) promoter Oryza sativa leads to gene expression (constitutive) Promoter of the acetohydroxy acid synthase from rice. Osakabe et al. (2005) Mol Breeding 16(4):313-320 104876
>P-ahas-TOBAC Add to selection P-SuRB, acetolactate synthase (ALS) promoter Nicotiana tabacum 104672
>P-actin Add to selection
>P-act1-ORYSA Add to selection P-ract1 Oryza sativa 100364
>P-act2-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana 104517
>P-act5c-DROME Add to selection P-Act5C Drosophila melanogaster 103761
>P-act8-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana 103907
>P-ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase Add to selection
>P-Agp-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum 106420
>P-alpha globulin B Add to selection
>P-alpha glbB-GOSHI Add to selection AGP> Gossypium hirsutum leads to seed-specific expression Promoter of the seed storage protein alpha-globulin B; Sunilkumar et al. (2001). Transgenic Research, 11, 347-359
>P-alpha subunit of beta conglycinin Add to selection
>P-7Salpha-SOYBN Add to selection L-alpha-bcsp, L-beta-conglycinin storage protein, P-7Salpha Glycine max 104359
>P-alpha-tubulin Add to selection
>P-TubA-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa Promoter, 5' UTR leader and intron sequences of the OsTubA gene family from rice encoding alpha-tubulin
>P-anthocyanidin synthase Add to selection
>P-ans-DIACA Add to selection Dianthus caryophyllus
>P-anti freeze protein Add to selection
>P-AFP-ZOAAM Add to selection Zoarces americanus 104722
>P-arcelin Add to selection
>P-arc5a-PHAVU Add to selection arcelin5 Phaseolus vulgaris leads to gene expression in seeds Promoter of arcelin; Goossens, A. et al. (1999). Plant Physiology 120, 1095-1104
>P-banana streak virus (Acuminata Vietnam strain) Add to selection
>P-BSV(AV) Add to selection Banana streak virus (Acuminata Vietnam)
>P-bromelain inhibitor Add to selection
>P-bi-ANACO Add to selection BRI, IBRO Ananas comosus fruit-enhanced expression modified promoter derived from the pineapple bromelain inhibitor gene (bi); length: 2.5 kb. Sawano Y. et al. (2001). Journal of Biol. Chem. 227 (31), 28222-28227
>P-CA55 stamen-specific Add to selection
>P-CA55-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 101413
>P-calcium-dependent protein kinase Add to selection
>P-cdpk-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 101405
>P-cassava vein mosaic virus Add to selection
>P-CsVMV Add to selection Cassava vein mosaic virus 101900
>P-cestrum yellow leaf curling virus Add to selection
>P-CYLCV Add to selection P-CmYLCV Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus 104788
>P-CYLCV_SMP-SYNTH Add to selection synthetic minimal plant promoter, from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus promoter Synthetic
>P-chalcone synthase Add to selection
>P-chs-ANTMA Add to selection Antirrhinum majus 103771
>P-citrus yellow mosaic virus Add to selection
>P-CiYMV Add to selection Citrus yellow mosaic virus
>P-conlinin Add to selection
>P-cnl1-LINUS Add to selection cn11 Linum usitatissimum leads to gene expression in developing seeds (middle-late stage) Promoter of the conlinin1 gene. Truska et al. (2003). Plant Phys and Biochem, 41,141-147
>P-cnl2-LINUS Add to selection cn12 Linum usitatissimum leads to gene expression in developing seeds Promoter of the conlinin2 gene. Truska et al. (2003). Plant Phys and Biochem, 41, 141-147
>P-cruciferin A Add to selection
>P-cruA-BRANA Add to selection cruciferin A Brassica napus 103918
>P-delta mas2 Add to selection
>P-4ocs_delta_mas-SYNTH Add to selection P-4ocs delta Mas2, E-4ocs-RHIRD Synthetic 103900
>P-dihydroflavonol 4-reductase Add to selection
>P-dfr-PETHY Add to selection Petunia hybrida 105798
>P-elongation factor EF-1 alpha Add to selection
>P-EF1alpha-ARATH Add to selection P-EF-1 alpha, T-TSF1 Arabidopsis thaliana 103903
>P-epoxide hydrolase Add to selection
>P-ephx-ANACO Add to selection EHS Ananas comosus leads to constitutive gene expression promoter of the epoxide hydrolase gene from Ananas. Constitutive expression; length: 1.7 kb
>P-ethylene biosynthesis-related Add to selection
>P-E8-SOLLC Add to selection Solanum lycopersicum 104862
>P-fatty acid elongase Add to selection
>P-fae1-ARATH Add to selection 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 18, KCS-18, VLCFA condensing enzyme 18, very long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme 18 Arabidopsis thaliana leads to embryo-specific expression at the time of storage oil deposition Promoter of the fatty acid elongase gene. Rossak et al. (2001). Plant Mol Biol, 46, 717-725
>P-fae1-BRANA Add to selection 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase 18, KCS-18; very long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme 18, VLCFA condensing enzyme 18 Brassica napus leads to embryo-specific expression at the time of storage oil deposition Promoter of fatty acid elongase. Han, J. et al. (2001). Plant Molecular Biology 46, 229-239
>P-gamma-zein Add to selection
>P-gz27-MAIZE Add to selection 27 kD gamma-zein promoter, GZ-W64A PRO Zea mays 103622
>P-globulin 1 Add to selection
>P-glb1-MAIZE Add to selection P-G1 globulin Zea mays Composition alteration > Nutritional composition > Altered amino acid composition 103623
>P-glutathione S-transferase Add to selection
>P-gst-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa leads to gene expression (constitutive) Promoter of the glutathione S-transferase gene from rice. Jain et al. (2010) BMC Genomics 11(73) 104869
>P-glutelin Add to selection
>P-GluA2-ORYSA Add to selection GluA-2, Glutelin type-A2 Oryza sativa ensures strong transcription in developing endosperm tissue Endosperm-specific glutelin promoter from rice. Takaiwa et al. (1987). FEBS Letters, 22, 43-47
>P-granule-bound starch synthase Add to selection
>P-gbss-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum 14997
>P-heat shock protein Add to selection
>P-hsp70-DROSP Add to selection P-HSP70 Drosophila spp. 103762
>P-hsp80-BRAOL Add to selection Brassica oleracea 101873
>P-hsp81-2-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana leads to high expression under normal growth temperatures (22°C) in all tissues Promoter of the heat shock protein 81-2 ; Yabe et al. (1994), Plant and Cell Physiol. 35, 1207-1219
>P-histone Add to selection
>P-H2B-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays
>P-H4-ARATH Add to selection P-histone H4, P-histone H4A748 Arabidopsis thaliana 104647
>P-homeodomain-leucine zipper 4 Add to selection
>P-HD4-HELAN Add to selection Helianthus annuus
>P-Kunitz trypsin inhibitor Add to selection
>P-KTi3-SOYBN Add to selection Glycine max 103893
>P-legumin Add to selection
>P-leg1-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays
>P-lipid transfer protein Add to selection
>P-ltp2-HORVU Add to selection Hordeum vulgare 105059
>P-mac chimeric molecule Add to selection
>P-mac1-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic 103773
>P-mannopine synthase Add to selection
>P-mas-RHIRD Add to selection P-mas-ARATH Agrobacterium tumefaciens 101417
>P-metallothionein-like Add to selection
>P-mtl-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 103881
>P-napin Add to selection
>P-FP1-BRANA Add to selection NAP, gNa, seed storage protein Brassica napus leads to seed-specific expression (primarily in embryo but also in endosperm) truncated napin promoter. Stalberg et al. (1993). Plant Mol Biol, 23, 671-683 101521
>P-napA-BRANA Add to selection NAP, seed storage protein Brassica napus leads to seed-specific expression (primarily in embryo but also in endosperm) Promoter of seed storage protein napin A/B. Ellerström, M. (1996). Plant Molecular Biology 32, 1019-1027
>P-napin-BRARR Add to selection P-2S albumin Brassica rapa 104354
>P-nopaline synthase Add to selection
>P-nos-RHIRD Add to selection pNOS Agrobacterium tumefaciens Promoter (directs transcription) Promoter region of the nopaline synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA. Bevan et al. (1983). Nucleic Acids Res 11, 369-385; Fraley et al. (1983). Proc Nat L Acad Sci 80, 4803-4807 100270
>P-peanut chlorotic streak virus Add to selection
>P-PCSV Add to selection PC1SV, promoter from the full-length transcript (FLt) of peanut chlorotic streak caulimovirus Peanut chlorotic streak virus 104662
>P-peroxidase Add to selection
>P-pox-WHEAT Add to selection P-perox Triticum aestivum 10368
>P-peroxiredoxin Add to selection
>P-pxr-LINUS Add to selection Linum usitatissimum leads to gene expression in seeds Promoter of peroxiredoxin. Duwenig, E. and Loyall, L.P. (2006). Patent WO2006089950 A2, WIPO
>P-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase Add to selection
>P-Pal2-PHAVU Add to selection Phaseolus vulgaris Composition alteration Promoter Promoter of the Pal2 gene encoding the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase that directs transcription in plant cells. Cramer et al. (1989). Plant Molecular Biology, 12, 367-383 105595
>P-phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase Add to selection
>P-pepc-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 101404
>P-physical impedance induced protein Add to selection
>P-pIIG-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays Promoter sequence from the physical impedance induced protein.
>P-Phytophthora resistance Add to selection
>P-rpi1-SOLBU Add to selection P-Rpi_blb1 Solanum bulbocastanum 103777
>P-rpi1-SOLVN Add to selection Rpi-vnt1 Solanum venturii Native promoter for the late blight resistance gene (Rpi-vnt1) 109062
>P-rpi2-SOLBU Add to selection Solanum bulbocastanum 103775
>P-polygalacturonase Add to selection
>P-pg47-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 105055
>P-RuBisCO small subunit Add to selection
>P-rbcS-ARATH Add to selection P-Arab-SSU1A, P-RuBisCO-SSU, P-ssuAra, PssuAt, ats1A Arabidopsis thaliana 103851
>P-rbcS-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa
>P-S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase Add to selection
>P-sams-SOYBN Add to selection Glycine max 103895
>P-scp1 chimeric molecule Add to selection
>P-scp1-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic 104818
>P-SETL Add to selection
>B-setl-BRANA Add to selection Brassica napus leads to gene expression in seeds Promoter of SETL. Bauer, J. and Senger, T. (2010). Patent WO2010000708, WIPO
>P-subterranean clover stunt virus Add to selection
>P-s7s7-SCSV Add to selection Subterranean clover stunt virus 101021
>P-sucrose binding protein Add to selection
>P-sbp-VICFA Add to selection Vicia faba leads to gene expression in late development stage of seeds Promoter of sucrose binding related protein. Grimes, H.D. et al. (1992). Plant Cell 4, 1561-1574
>P-TA29 tapetal specific Add to selection
>P-ta29-TOBAC Add to selection P-TA29 pollen specific, Pta29 Nicotiana tabacum 101407
>P-tac chimeric molecule Add to selection
>P-tac-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic 101408
>P-triosephosphate isomerase Add to selection
>P-tpi1-SCHPM Add to selection Schizosaccharomyces pombe
>P-tpi1-YEASX Add to selection Saccharomyces cerevisiae
>P-ubiquitin Add to selection
>P-ubi-ANACO Add to selection Ananas comosus leads to constitutive gene expression promoter of the tetrameric ubiquitin (Ubi) gene from Ananas, including endogenous intron; length: 1,5 kb + 1.057 kb for the endogenous intron.
>P-ubi-ANDGE Add to selection Andropogon gerardii
>P-ubi1-MAIZE Add to selection P-ZmUbi1, P-ubiZM1 Zea mays Promoter (directs transcription) Promoter region of the polyubiquitin gene. Christensen et al. (1992). Plant Mol Biol, 18, 675-689 100362
>P-ubi10-ARATH Add to selection P-AtUbi10 Arabidopsis thaliana 104802
>P-ubi3-ARATH Add to selection P-ubiAt3 Arabidopsis thaliana 101874
>P-ubi4-PETCR Add to selection P-ubiPc4 Petroselinum crispum Promoter; leads to gene expression Promoter of ubiquitin. Kawalleck, P. et al. (1993). Plant Molecular Biology 21, 673-684
>P-ubi4-SACOF Add to selection P-ubiSO4 Saccharum officinarum Promoter (directs transcription) Promoter region of the ubiquitin 4 gene form sugarcane. Wie et al. (2003). J Plant Physiol, 160,1241-1251 101941
>P-ubi7-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa leads to gene expression Promoter of the ubiquitin 7 gene from rice. Jain et al. (2010). BMC Genomics, 11(73) 104873
>P-USP Add to selection
>P-usp-VICFA Add to selection Vicia faba leads to gene expression in seeds Promoter of USP. Bäumlein, H. et al. (1991). Molecular and General Genetics, 225, 459-467
regulatory element Add to selection
>R-ER retention signal Add to selection Synthetic 102033
>R-SEKDEL-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic 102033
>R-heptamerised tetracycline operator Add to selection
>R-tetO-ECOLX Add to selection Escherichia coli Non-coding binding site for tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTAV); for the definition: heptamerized tetracycline operator sequences. Gossen and Bujard (1992) PNAS 89:5547-5551 105038
>R-spacer Add to selection Solanum tuberosum
>R-gbss_spacer-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum
terminator Add to selection
>T-35S CaMV Add to selection
>T-35S-CaMV Add to selection 3' 35S, 35S TERM, T-35S , t35S Cauliflower mosaic virus Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) 3' transcriptional termination element (3' UTR) of the 35S gene from Cauliflower mosaic virus. Gardner et al. (1981). Nucleic Acids Res, 9,2871-2888 100290
>T-acetohydroxy acid synthase Add to selection
>T-ahas-ARATH Add to selection acetolactate synthase (ALS) terminator Arabidopsis thaliana 103933
>T-ahas-ORYSA Add to selection Acetolactate synthase (ALS) terminator Oryza sativa indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation 3' termination region of the acetohydroxy acid synthase from rice. Osakabe et al. (2005). Mol. Breeding, 16(4),313-320 104878
>T-ahas-SOYBN Add to selection Acetolactate Synthase gene Terminator, T-gm-als, T-hra Glycine max 103896
>T-SuRB-TOBAC Add to selection T-SuRB, acetolactate synthase (ALS) terminator Nicotiana tabacum 100390
>T-actin 1 Add to selection
>T-act1-SORBI Add to selection Sorghum bicolor
>T-alpha amylase trypsin inhibitor Add to selection
>T-Ara5-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa 3 UTR sequence of the RA5B precursor gene (Ara5) that directs polyadenylation of mRNA
>T-alpha subunit beta conglycinin Add to selection
>T-7Salpha-SOYBN Add to selection T-7 alpha Glycine max 103856
>T-alpha-tubulin Add to selection
>T-TubA-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa
>T-anthocyanidin synthase Add to selection
>T-ans-DIACA Add to selection Dianthus caryophyllus
>T-anti freeze protein Add to selection
>T-AFP-ZOAAM Add to selection Zoarces americanus 104724
>T-arcelin Add to selection
>T-arc5a-PHAVU Add to selection ARC(Pv) Phaseolus vulgaris Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) Terminator of arcelin; Goossens, A. et al. (1999). Plant Physiology 120, 1095-1104
>T-barnase Add to selection
>T-barnase-BACAM Add to selection 3'barnase Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 104825
>T-barstar Add to selection
>T-barstar-BACAM Add to selection Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 101409
>T-cathepsin D inhibitor Add to selection
>T-CDI-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) Terminator of cathepsin D inhibitor gene; Hannapel, D.J. et al. (1993). Plant Physiology 101, 703
>T-conlinin Add to selection
>T-cnl1-LINUS Add to selection cn11 Linum usitatissimum Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) Terminator of the conlinin1 gene. Truska et a. (2003). Plant Phys and Biochem, 41(2), 141-147
>T-cnl2-LINUS Add to selection cn12 Linum usitatissimum Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) Terminator of the conlinin2 gene. Truska et a. (2003). Plant Phys and Biochem, 41(2), 141-147
>T-cruciferin A Add to selection
>T-cruA-BRANA Add to selection cruciferin A Brassica napus 103919
>T-dihydroflavonol 4-reductase Add to selection
>T-dfr-PETHY Add to selection Petunia hybrida 105799
>T-drosomycin Add to selection
>T-drs-DROME Add to selection Drosophila melanogaster 103764
>T-E6 Add to selection
>T-E6-GOSBA Add to selection Gossypium barbadense
>T-fatty acid elongase Add to selection
>T-fae1-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) Terminator of fatty acid elongase. Rossak, M. et al. (2001). Plant Molecular Biology 46, 717-725
>T-female sterile (1) K10 Add to selection
>T-fs(1)K10-DROSP Add to selection Drosophila spp. 103763
>T-globulin 1 Add to selection
>T-glb1-MAIZE Add to selection T-G1 globulin Zea mays 103624
>T-glb1-PHAVU Add to selection G1 globulin terminator, T-phas, T-phaseolin Gossypium barbadense 104364
>T-heat shock protein Add to selection
>T-hsp17_3-WHEAT Add to selection T-hsp17.3 Triticum aestivum 100356
>T-herbicide safener inducible In2-1 Add to selection
>T-In2_1-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 105058
>T-histone Add to selection
>T-H4-ARATH Add to selection Histone H4A748 3' UTR, T-histone H4 Arabidopsis thaliana 104646
>T-H6-GOSBA Add to selection Gossypium barbadense 104689
>T-Kunitz trypsin inhibitor Add to selection
>T-KTi3-SOYBN Add to selection Glycine max 103894
>T-lectin Add to selection
>T-le1-SOYBN Add to selection LE1 Glycine max Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) Terminator of the lectin gene. Vodkin et al (1983). Cell 34, 1023-1031
>T-legumin Add to selection
>T-leg1-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays
>T-male fertility gene Ms45 Add to selection
>T-ms45-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays 105054
>T-mannopine synthase Add to selection
>T-mas-RHIRD Add to selection Agrobacterium tumefaciens 103774
>T-metallothionein-like protein Add to selection
>T-Mt-ORYSA Add to selection Oryza sativa
>T-NADP-malic enzyme Add to selection
>T-NADPme1-FLABI Add to selection T-NADP-malic enzyme 1 Flavera bidentis 101025
>T-napin Add to selection
>T-napin-BRARR Add to selection T-2S albumin Brassica rapa 104355
>T-nopaline synthase Add to selection
>T-nos-RHIRD Add to selection 3' nos, NOST Agrobacterium tumefaciens Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) 3' transcriptional termination element (3' UTR) of the nopaline synthase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA. Bevan et al. (1983). Nucleic Acids Res. 11, 369-385; Fraley et al. (1983). Proc Nat L Acad Sci, 80,4803-4807 100269
>T-octopine synthase Add to selection
>T-ocs-RHIRD Add to selection Agrobacterium tumefaciens 100271
>T-ORF1 Add to selection
>T-orf1-RHIRD Add to selection Agrobacterium tumefaciens 104807
>T-ORF23 Add to selection
>T-orf23-RHIRD Add to selection Agrobacterium tumefaciens 104806
>T-ORF25 Add to selection
>T-orf25-RHIRD Add to selection Agrobacterium tumefaciens 100363
>T-peroxiredoxin Add to selection
>T-pxr-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) Terminator of peroxidin. Haslekås, C. et al. (1998). Plant Molecular Biology 36, 833-845
>T-phosphate transporter Add to selection
>T-Pt1-MEDTR Add to selection Medicago truncatula
>T-phospholipids transfer protein Add to selection
>T-D8-PETHY Add to selection D8 terminator Petunia hybrida 103772
>T-Phytophthora resistance Add to selection
>T-rpi1-SOLBU Add to selection Solanum bulbocastanum 103778
>T-rpi1-SOLVN Add to selection Solanum venturii Native terminator for the late blight resistance gene (Rpi-vnt1). 109063
>T-rpi2-SOLBU Add to selection Solanum bulbocastanum 103776
>T-potato virus Y Add to selection
>T-cp-PVY Add to selection Potato virus Y
>T-preferential cationic peroxidase Add to selection
>T-per5-MAIZE Add to selection T-Per5 Zea mays 104813
>T-proteinase inhibitor II Add to selection
>T-pinII-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum 100367
>T-ribosomal protein gene Add to selection
>T-rpg-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana
>T-RuBisCO small subunit Add to selection
>T-rbcS-SOYBN Add to selection T-RuBisCO SSU, T-SSU Glycine max 104632
>T-rbcS_E9-PEA Add to selection T-RuBisCO SSU, T-SSU, T-rbcS-E9 Pisum sativum Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) 3' transcriptional termination element (3' UTR) of the rinulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, small subunit (rbcS E9) gene. Coruzzi et al. (1984). EMBO J. 3,1671-1679 101877
>T-SETL Add to selection
>t-setl-BRANA Add to selection Brassica napus Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation) Terminator of SETL. Bauer, J. and Senger, T. (2010). Patent WO2010000708, WIPO
>T-transcript 7 Add to selection
>T-tr7-RHIRD Add to selection 3'g7, T-Ag7, T-g7, T-pAg7, T7 terminator Agrobacterium tumefaciens 103067
>T-triosephosphate isomerase Add to selection
>T-tpi1-SCHPM Add to selection Schizosaccharomyces pombe
>T-tpi1-YEASX Add to selection Saccharomyces cerevisiae
>T-tumor morphology large Add to selection
>T-tml-RHIRD Add to selection T-tml3' Agrobacterium tumefaciens 104340
>T-ubiquitin Add to selection
>T-ubi-ANACO Add to selection Ananas comosus 3' UTR and flanking region of the pineapple Ubi gene; lenght: 940bp
>T-ubi1-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays
>T-ubi14-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana
>T-ubi3-ARATH Add to selection Arabidopsis thaliana
>T-vegetative storage protein Add to selection
>T-vsp-SOYBN Add to selection Glycine max Terminator (indicates the end of transcription; directs polyadenylation). 3' terminator of a gene encoding a vegetative storage protein from soybean (Glycine max)
>T-zein Add to selection
>T-zein-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays
transit peptide Add to selection
>TP-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase Add to selection
>TP-epsps-ARATH Add to selection TS-CTP2, chloroplast transit peptide of shkG, ctp2 Arabidopsis thaliana
>TP-acetohydroxy acid synthase Add to selection
>TP-ahas-MAIZE Add to selection acetolactate synthase chloroplast transit peptide, ahas-CTP Zea mays 104660
>TP-brittle Add to selection
>TP-brittle1-MAIZE Add to selection TP-brittle-1, TP-zm-bt1 Zea mays 105056
>TP-chloroplast transit peptide Add to selection
>TP-ctp-ARATH Add to selection TP-RuBisCo-SSU, TP-SSU, TP-SSUArab, TP-Ssu-Arab, TP-ctp2 Arabidopsis thaliana 100365
>TP-ctp-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic
>TP-ctp4-PETHY Add to selection Petunia hybrida 103899
>TP-cysteine protease Add to selection
>TP-ccp2-MAIZE Add to selection Zea mays
>TP-dihydrodipicolinate synthase Add to selection
>TP-dhdps-MAIZE Add to selection DHDPS chloroplast targeting sequence, dihydrodipicolinate synthase chloroplast targeting sequence Zea mays 104383
>TP-optimised transit peptide Add to selection
>TP-OTP-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide (CTP) sequence based on CTP sequences from sunflower and maize. Directs the mEPSPS protein to the chloroplast. (Lebrun et al. 1996).
>TP-RuBisCO small subunit Add to selection
>TP-rbcS-ARATH Add to selection TP-RuBisCo-SSU, TP-SSU, TP-SSUArab , TP-Ssu-Arab, TP-ctp1 Arabidopsis thaliana 101902
>TP-rbcS-MAIZE Add to selection CTPSsu, TP-RuBisCO-SSU, TS-SSU Zea mays 100360
>TP-rbcS-PEA Add to selection TP-RuBisCO-SSU, TP-SSU Pisum sativum 103616
>TP-rbcS-SYNTH Add to selection TP-OPT, TP-OTP, TPotP C, optimized transit peptide Synthetic 101419
unknown origin Add to selection
>U-sequence of unknown origin Add to selection
vector fragment Add to selection
>V-beta galactosidase Add to selection
>V-beta_gal-ECOLX Add to selection Escherichia coli
>V-beta lactamase Add to selection
>V-bla-ECOLX Add to selection ampR, ampicillin resistance, beta lactamase Escherichia coli 14975
>V-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase Add to selection
>V-cat-ECOLX Add to selection Escherichia coli 100382
>V-intervening sequences Add to selection
>V-intervening-RHIRD Add to selection Agrobacterium tumefaciens
>V-intervening-SOLTU Add to selection Solanum tuberosum
>V-intervening-SYNTH Add to selection multiple cloning site, nucleotide recognition sequence of restriction endonuclease, cloning and ligation sites, nucleotide recognition sequence of restriction enzymes, polylinker, restriction sites Synthetic
>V-MCS-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic
>V-inverted terminal repeat Add to selection
>V-itr-TRINI Add to selection Trichoplusia ni Bacterial selectable marker (mostly used as part of the vector backbone); element includes its own bacterial regulatory sequences and is only for selection in bacteria as it does not lead to expression in planta. Beck et al. (1982). Gene, 19,327-336
>V-loxP recombination site Add to selection
>V-loxP-BPP1 Add to selection Bacteriophage P1 103069
>V-neomycin phosphotransferase Add to selection
>V-nptII-ECOLX Add to selection aminoglycoside 3-phosphotransferase (APH) II, kanamycin resistance Escherichia coli
>V-piggyBac DNA transposable element Add to selection
>V-tel-TRINI Add to selection Trichoplusia ni
>V-pMc5-8 Add to selection
>V-pMc5_8-SYNTH Add to selection pMc5-8 Synthetic 101412
>V-pUC Add to selection
>V-pUC18-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic
>V-pUC19-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic 101410
>V-pUC_oriC-SYNTH Add to selection pMB1-type ColE1 origin of replication, pUC-OriC Synthetic 101411
>V-Ti plasmid left border repeat Add to selection
>V-LB-RHIRD Add to selection LB, left border Agrobacterium tumefaciens 101415
>V-LB-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic
>V-Ti plasmid right border repeat Add to selection
>V-RB-RHIRD Add to selection RB, right border Agrobacterium tumefaciens 101415
>V-RB-SYNTH Add to selection Synthetic
>V-transformation vector backbone Add to selection
>V-backbone-SYNTH Add to selection plasmid backbone, remainder of transformation vector not intended for integration Synthetic

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GMOSort Icon Genetic Elementsshow
Aedes aegypti OX513A
coding sequence > CS-DsRed2 fluorescent protein > CS-DsRed2-SYNTH

coding sequence > CS-tetracycline-controlled transactivator > CS-tTAV-SYNTH

intron > I-alcohol dehydrogenase > I-adh-DROSP

promoter > P-actin > P-act5c-DROME

promoter > P-heat shock protein > P-hsp70-DROSP

regulatory element > R-heptamerised tetracycline operator > R-tetO-ECOLX

terminator > T-drosomycin > T-drs-DROME

terminator > T-female sterile (1) K10 > T-fs(1)K10-DROSP

vector fragment > V-intervening sequences

vector fragment > V-intervening sequences > V-intervening-SYNTH

vector fragment > V-inverted terminal repeat > V-itr-TRINI

vector fragment > V-piggyBac DNA transposable element > V-tel-TRINI

AmA1 Potato
AM04-1020
coding sequence > CS-acetohydroxy acid synthase > CS-ahas-ARATH

gene silencing > GS-granule-bound starch synthase > GS-gbss_as-SOLTU

gene silencing > GS-granule-bound starch synthase > GS-gbss_s-SOLTU

promoter > P-granule-bound starch synthase > P-gbss-SOLTU

promoter > P-nopaline synthase > P-nos-RHIRD

regulatory element > R-spacer > R-gbss_spacer-SOLTU

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

vector fragment > V-Ti plasmid right border repeat > V-RB-RHIRD

AquAdvantage Salmon
coding sequence > CS-growth hormone > CS-GHc2-ONCTS

genomic sequence > G-endogenous genomic sequence > G-genomic-HOST

promoter > P-anti freeze protein > P-AFP-ZOAAM

terminator > T-anti freeze protein > T-AFP-ZOAAM

vector fragment > V-intervening sequences > V-MCS-SYNTH

ASR368
coding sequence > CS-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase > CS-CP4epsps-RHIRD

intron > I-actin > I-1_act1-ORYSA

intron > I-heat shock protein > I-hsp70-MAIZE

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-e35S-CaMV

promoter > P-actin > P-act1-ORYSA

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

transit peptide > TP-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase > TP-epsps-ARATH

ATBT04-06
coding sequence > CS-crystal delta-endotoxin > CS-cry3A-BACTU

coding sequence > CS-neomycin phosphotransferase II > CS-nptII-ECOLX

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

promoter > P-RuBisCO small subunit > P-rbcS-ARATH

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

terminator > T-RuBisCO small subunit > T-rbcS_E9-PEA

ATBT04-27
coding sequence > CS-crystal delta-endotoxin > CS-cry3A-BACTU

coding sequence > CS-neomycin phosphotransferase II > CS-nptII-ECOLX

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

promoter > P-RuBisCO small subunit > P-rbcS-ARATH

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

terminator > T-RuBisCO small subunit > T-rbcS_E9-PEA

ATBT04-30
coding sequence > CS-crystal delta-endotoxin > CS-cry3A-BACTU

coding sequence > CS-neomycin phosphotransferase II > CS-nptII-ECOLX

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

promoter > P-RuBisCO small subunit > P-rbcS-ARATH

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

terminator > T-RuBisCO small subunit > T-rbcS_E9-PEA

ATBT04-31
coding sequence > CS-crystal delta-endotoxin > CS-cry3A-BACTU

coding sequence > CS-neomycin phosphotransferase II > CS-nptII-ECOLX

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

promoter > P-RuBisCO small subunit > P-rbcS-ARATH

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

terminator > T-RuBisCO small subunit > T-rbcS_E9-PEA

ATBT04-36
coding sequence > CS-crystal delta-endotoxin > CS-cry3A-BACTU

coding sequence > CS-neomycin phosphotransferase II > CS-nptII-ECOLX

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

promoter > P-RuBisCO small subunit > P-rbcS-ARATH

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

terminator > T-RuBisCO small subunit > T-rbcS_E9-PEA

AV43-6-G7
gene silencing > GS-granule-bound starch synthase > GS-gbss_as-SOLTU

gene silencing > GS-granule-bound starch synthase > GS-gbss_s-SOLTU

promoter > P-granule-bound starch synthase > P-gbss-SOLTU

regulatory element > R-spacer > R-gbss_spacer-SOLTU

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

vector fragment > V-beta galactosidase > V-beta_gal-ECOLX

A2704-12
coding sequence > CS-phosphinotricin N-acetyltransferase > CS-pat-STRVR

genomic sequence > G-endogenous genomic sequence > G-flank-HOST

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

terminator > T-35S CaMV > T-35S-CaMV

vector fragment > V-beta lactamase > V-bla-ECOLX

vector fragment > V-intervening sequences > V-MCS-SYNTH

vector fragment > V-pUC > V-pUC19-SYNTH

A2704-12 x A5547-127
A2704-21
coding sequence > CS-phosphinotricin N-acetyltransferase > CS-pat-STRVR

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

terminator > T-35S CaMV > T-35S-CaMV

vector fragment > V-beta lactamase > V-bla-ECOLX

A5/15
coding sequence > CS-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase > CS-CP4epsps-RHIRD

promoter > P-34S FMV > P-FMV

terminator > T-RuBisCO small subunit > T-rbcS_E9-PEA

transit peptide > TP-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase > TP-epsps-ARATH

vector fragment > V-Ti plasmid right border repeat > V-RB-SYNTH

A5547-127
coding sequence > CS-phosphinotricin N-acetyltransferase > CS-pat-STRVR

genomic sequence > G-endogenous genomic sequence > G-flank-HOST

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

terminator > T-35S CaMV > T-35S-CaMV

vector fragment > V-beta lactamase > V-bla-ECOLX

vector fragment > V-intervening sequences > V-MCS-SYNTH

vector fragment > V-pUC > V-pUC19-SYNTH

A5547-35
coding sequence > CS-phosphinotricin N-acetyltransferase > CS-pat-STRVR

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

terminator > T-35S CaMV > T-35S-CaMV

B tomato
coding sequence > CS-neomycin phosphotransferase II > CS-nptII-ECOLX

gene silencing > GS-polygalacturonase gene > GS-pg_as-SOLLC

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV_v6

promoter > P-nopaline synthase > P-nos-RHIRD

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

vector fragment > V-intervening sequences > V-intervening-SYNTH

vector fragment > V-Ti plasmid left border repeat > V-LB-RHIRD

vector fragment > V-Ti plasmid right border repeat > V-RB-RHIRD

Bt-ZJ22
coding sequence > CS-crystal delta-endotoxin > CS-cry1Ab-BACTU

genomic sequence > G-endogenous genomic sequence > G-flank-HOST

promoter > P-RuBisCO small subunit > P-rbcS-ORYSA

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

vector fragment > V-intervening sequences > V-intervening-SYNTH

Bt10 maize
coding sequence > CS-crystal delta-endotoxin > CS-cry1Ab-BACTU

coding sequence > CS-phosphinotricin N-acetyltransferase > CS-pat-STRVR

genomic sequence > G-endogenous genomic sequence > G-flank-HOST

genomic sequence > G-endogenous genomic sequence > G-genomic-HOST

intron > I-alcohol dehydrogenase > I-2_adh1-MAIZE

intron > I-alcohol dehydrogenase > I-6_adh1-MAIZE

promoter > P-35S CaMV > P-35S-CaMV

terminator > T-nopaline synthase > T-nos-RHIRD

unknown origin > U-sequence of unknown origin

vector fragment > V-beta lactamase > V-bla-ECOLX

vector fragment > V-pUC > V-pUC_oriC-SYNTH

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